Selected AFO and CAFO Definitions

Agricultural Stormwater Exemption: an exemption that requires the farmer’s use of a nutrient management plan reviewed and signed by a certified nutrient management planner. This exemption removes the farmer’s liability from the runoff of manure or poultry litter from the land application area during a storm event if nutrients are being applied at agronomic rates using a nutrient management plan.

Animal Feeding Operation (AFO): an operation that confines or stables animals for more than 45 days out of the year and vegetation is not present in the production area.

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO): an operation that has a potential to discharge or propose to discharge from the production area or the land-application area. The operator of such an operation must apply for coverage under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting process.

CAFO NPDES Permit: a zero-discharge permit issued by the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection.

Land-application Area: the area where manure or poultry litter is spread or applied.

Production Area: the feeding area where animals are confined and/or manure and process wastewater are stored.

Prepared by Tom Basden, WVU Extension Service nutrient management specialist, and Christina Richmond, Tyler County WVU Extension Service agent.